The 1995 observation of Bose–Einstein condensation in dilute atomic vapours spawned the field of ultracold, degenerate quantum gases. Unprecedented developments in experimental design and precision control have led to quantum gases becoming the preferred playground for designer quantum many-body systems. This self-contained volume provides a broad overview of the principal theoretical techniques applied to non-equilibrium and finite temperature quantum gases. Covering Bose–Einstein condensates, degenerate Fermi gases, and the more recently realised exciton–polariton condensates, it fills a gap by linking between different methods with origins in condensed matter physics, quantum field theory, quantum optics, atomic physics, and statistical mechanics. Thematically organised chapters on different methodologies, contributed by key researchers using a unified notation, provide the first integrated view of the relative merits of individual approaches, aided by pertinent introductory chapters and the guidance of editorial notes. Both graduate students and established researchers wishing to understand the state of the art will greatly benefit from this comprehensive and up-to-date review of non-equilibrium and finite temperature techniques in the exciting and expanding field of quantum gases and liquids.